Monday, March 19, 2012

Southeastern Ceramic Form/Style (substitute)

Cook, Robert A. Fargher, Lane F.
2008 The Incorporation of Mississippian Traditions into Fort Ancient Societies: A Preliminary View of The Shift to Shell-Tempered Pottery Use in the Middle Ohio Valley. Southeastern Archaeology 27(2):222-237.

    The goal of this article was to build upon an earlier study also done by Cook and Fargher, which focused on the social context of shell pottery within a village through a preliminary regional study to find the sources and pinpoint interactions between villages with the bigger social picture. The focus is to further evaluate a connection between Mississippian villages and Fort Ancient villages; as well as to provide a baseline of data to be expanded upon with further research into this particular subject. Cook and Fargher explain that the increase in shell pottery temper in the Fort Ancient region occurs during the height of neighboring Mississippian developments after a long period of time where shell was mixed with other temper types.
    This article pays particular attention to the SunWatch village located along the west bank of the Great Miami River just south of Dayton Ohio. They chose this site because it is one of the most extensively excavated and analyzed Fort Ancient sites. This site was occupied most likely on several separated occasions between 1150 and 1450 AD. Shell tempering and grit/shell tempering constitute small minorities of the site's collected pottery, despite the local abundance of mussel shell. Grit/shell tempered pottery was found to be concentrated in the southern portion of the site which suggests a slow diffusion of shell into the current technologies. Upon examination, grit/shell tempered pottery reveals a blend of styles with handle types. They had similar proportions of strap/loop and lug types as well as having Mississippian style negative painting over a common Fort Ancient rectilinear neck. In addition to the above, mixed or hybrid characteristics have been proposed elsewhere in cases of Mississippian/Late Woodland contact which supports a syncretic nature of many instances of culture contact and indicates that ceramic producers were selectively adopting and manipulating Mississippian ideas in a local cultural context.

Delaney-Rivera, Colleen.
2004 From Edge to Frontier: Early Mississippian Occupation of the Lower Illinois River Valley. Southeastern Archaeology 23:41-56.

    Delaney-Rivera's article discusses a sample of the known archaeological evidence from the lower Illinois River valley to support the proposition that an early Mississippian era occupation did occurred in the valley. The first site she discusses is the Evie site which shows simple contact between Late Woodland and Mississippian populations. This site is a Late Woodland site located in a tributary valley on the west side of the lower Illinois valley. One sherd from a Mississippian seed jar was found which provides evidence of contact between the two groups in the form of potential exchange of goods and ideas. This site is listed in Farnsworth et al documenting both Jersey Bluff phase and Mississippian ceramics. The assumption is that they must represent trade relations. Next, Delaney-Rivera talks about the Audrey site. She asserts that Audrey provides the best evidence in the lower Illinois valley for a Mississippian colony. The Mississippian ceramic assemblage is comparable to other American Bottom collections. The majority of vessels were jars, but bowls, beakers, seed jars, water bottles and hooded water bottles were also found. Delaney-Rivera says that the recovery of a virtually complete Mississippian assemblage suggests that the individuals were fully engaged in a Mississippian way of life. The vessels, based on jar rim types, vessel forms and the recovery of Ramey Incised jars, represents a typical Lohmann or Stirling phase assemblage when compared to American Bottom sites, which further supports the idea of a full Mississippian way of life.
    Delaney-Rivera proposes a new chronological designation for the lower Illinois River valley, the Audrey phase, based on the Audrey site excavations. This new phase is necessary to fully account for the archaeological record of the lower Illinois River valley. She believes that further research conducted with data from additional habitation and mortuary sites will most likely confirm the Audrey phase proposal by demonstrating the occupation of additional sites during this time period and will further identify artifacts, features and behaviors associated with this new chronological period.

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