Thursday, February 23, 2012
Woodland Projectile Points
James E. Fitting
1964 Bifurcate-Stemmed Projectile Points in the Eastern United States. American Antiquity, Vol. 30: 92-94
Society for American Archaeology
In the article: Bifurcate-Stemmed Projectile Points in the Eastern United States by: James E. Fitting, he states that there is now evidence of bifurcate-stemmed projectile points in the eastern United States. Another point that he made is that they can be found in both large and small sizes. He also points out in the article there is a distribution of bifurcated-stemmed projectile points in the eastern United States, and within these projectile points there are varieties. An example of this is “Two varieties of “LeCroy Bifurcate Stem” projectile points have been recognized in Tennessee.” (Fitting 93). He also goes on to say that at one time it was thought that the bifurcate-stemmed projectile points might be an identifiable marker in the south western United States and that he suggests “that stemmed, indented-base points filled a “gap” between Folsom and recent horizons. (Fitting 92). Another thing that he says is that the bifurcate-stem projectile points occur on several sites across the United States. An example of this is “At the Pine Tree site projectile points were recovered, and included were nine LeCroy stemmed points, 14 fluted points, and 55 unfluted Paleo-Indian points. “ (Fitting 94). In the article Fitting also says that within all of the sites that he discusses that the radiocarbon dates, which there are three examples of this is. The first example of this is “Ritchie, in his analysis of 10,800 projectile points from the state of New York, reports 48 with bifurcate stems, but he considered the existing data on these forms to be too scary to represent a separate type. Another example of this is “At the Rohr rock shelter in West Virginia several small, triangular-bladed bifurcate-stem projectile points were found in the lowest level. … Dragoo suggests that they belong to an Archaic tradition which, at the Rohr shelter, has a radiocarbon date of 3352 +/- 90 B.C.” (Fitting 93).
Christenson, Andrew L.
1986 Projectile Point Size and Projectile Aerodynamics: An Exploratory Study. The Plains Anthropologist Vol. 31: 109-128
In the article Projectile Point Size and Projectile Aerodynamics: An Exploratory Study Christenson points out that “Stone projectile points serve as an important source of information for placing preceramic and aceramic archaeological assemblages into a space/time framework.” (Christenson 109). He also argues that under some instances that projectile points were used as a multi-tools. An example of this is “This comes from evidence of beveling, grinding, and serration, which has been discussed and documented elsewhere and so will only be summarized here.” (Christenson 111). Another example of this is “under conditions of high hunter mobility, where a hunter must travel light and may be away from suitable lithic sources, it would be necessary to rely on a portable, flexible technology.” (Christenson 112). Also, he points out that there are three important aspects of using projectile points which are: accuracy, killing power, and range, and one secondary aspect of projectile points which is durability. Another point that he makes is during flight a projectile point has many important factors that affect it during flight, which is gravity, drag, weight, air density, and velocity. Another point that he argues is that of projectile killing power characteristics which consist of the shape of the wound that created it, its force of impact, and where the wound is on the animal. He also says that some of the material that is used for projectile points such as the wood they construct their weapons with. In the article Christenson also says in the different time periods of early and middle archaic that there is a slight size difference from the end of the early archaic. Another thing that he says is “It is reasonable to expect that changes in the animals hunted had an effect upon, projectile technology, but the trends in projectile point size documented for the Sangamon do not appear to have any obvious correlation with the general Midwestern faunal trends.” (Christenson 120).